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Training acronyms and abbreviations explained

whyamiherewhyamihere Posts: 7,337
This post was written by various authors collaborating on http://www.cyclingforums.com. It is reproduced here to benefit BR users, but all credit goes to the members there.

AC……………………ANAEROBIC CAPACITY (see AWC)
Is an athlete’s ability to cycle/run etc. fast over and above VO2max (see VO2 Max below) Athletes are only able to sustain this effort for a short time measured in minutes.

AEPF………………..AVERAGE EFFECTIVE PEDAL FORCE (pedal force averaged over complete cycle, typically works out to approximately half of peak pedal force during downstroke)
I think to understand this we have to consider what ‘Power’ is. If we take a look at the formula Power = Pedal Force x Cadence (more precisely angular velocity)
What this formula tells us, is that a cyclist is able to increase power by exerting more force on the pedals given the same cadence by using a bigger gear or increasing cadence whilst applying the same pedal force. Of course power can be increased by applying more force to the pedals and at the same time increasing the cadence.
The AEPF can be formulated from the above.

AP……………………AVERAGE POWER
Power averaged across duration of interest.

ATL………………….ACUTE TRAINING LOAD
(See TSS below) Put simply, it is a measure of the level of recent daily training load (i.e. proxy for fatigue) experienced by the rider effectively measured over the previous 21 to 30 days and carries units of TSS per day. It is calculated as an exponential average of TSS values from the workouts with exponential time constants typically between 7 and 10 days. What is the Performance Management Chart
(Also see CTL below)

AWC…………………ANAEROBIC WORK CAPACITY
The energy in joules available for purely anaerobic efforts. http://www.velo-fit.com/articles/critical-power.pdf

C……………………..CADENCE
Bicycle crank speed in revolutions per minute

C……………………..CALORIES
Dietary Calories or amount of energy required to raise one liter of water by one degree Celcius, equal to 1000 'physics or engineering calories'

Cd……………………COEFFICIENT OF DRAG
A factor which represents the drag acting on a body or more precisely, the ratio of the drag on a body moving through air to the product of the velocity and the surface area of the body. Most useful to cyclists when expressed as CdA or overall effective 'drag area'. For a given sustained power output a rider will travel faster on the flat as they lower their CdA and is important of solo riders in time trials or solo breaks. Rider's reduce 'A' by using drops or aero bars and reducing frontal area but reduce overall CdA by using aero wheels, helmets, skinsuits, booties and other equipment designed to influence fluid flow and reduce drag.

CL……………………CRANK LENGTH
Length of bicycle crank arm, typically measured in millimeters

CTL………………….CHRONIC TRAINING LOAD
A measure of overall long term average training volume measured in units of TSS per day. CTL effectively represents the daily average training load over the previous three to four months and is calculated with via an exponential average with the default time constant of 42 days. Given the length of the averaging period, CTL effectively represents the load an athlete has successfully adapted to. What is the Performance Management Chart (see also ATL above)

CP……………………CRITICAL POWER
The sustainable metabolic a rider is capable of sustaining based on the Monod-Scherrer two part model of energy production. CP is typically given in units of watts per kilogram and effectively represents FTP. The Monod-Scherrer definition of CP has been in use for nearly fifty years by exercise physiologists but recent use of CPx or sustainable power for various durations has muddied the waters and led to confusion over the use of this established term.
http://www.velo-fit.com/articles/critical-power.pdf

CPV………………….CIRCUMFERENTIAL PEDAL VELOCITY
Put simply - the velocity at which the pedal travels around in a circle

CRITS……………….CRITERIUM (RACES)
Racing for the totally insane on short closed courses, typically high speed with several sharp corners per lap. Criteriums often feature midway sprints for prizes and typically end in a high speed pack sprint.

FT…………………….FUNCTIONAL THRESHOLD
A generalized term describing the long term intensity an athlete can sustain for roughly an hour. The term 'Functional' is used explicitly to separate the net effective intensity the athlete can sustain from underlying physiological processes and markers including blood lactate levels, heart rate, etc.

FTP…………………..FUNCTIONAL THRESHOLD POWER
FTP represents a rider's best sustainable power for durations of roughly an hour under ideal conditions which include sufficient rest and motivation. For time trialists FTP can be viewed as best sustainable 40K TT power for a best effort and well paced time trial. FTP does not represent 'on demand' one hour power reliably obtained during run of the mill training on days with partial recovery, insufficient motivation, difficult weather, poor pacing, etc. Many riders estimate their FTP using a shorter duration (possibly in some cases to avoid having to grind away for one hour on a trainer).
Threshold power: what is it, why is it important, and how do I measure it?
Alex's Cycle Blog: The seven deadly sins


HIT (HIIT)…………………..HIGH INTENSITY (INTERVAL) TRAINING
A training philosophy based on short duration but intense intervals as a means of establishing both high end and base training. It's probably worth mentioning the Tabata method at this juncture:
Dr. Tabata introduced regimen based on a 1996 study uses 20 seconds of ultra-intense exercise (at 170% of VO2Max) followed by 10 seconds of rest, continuing for 3/4 minutes for an entire workout including warmup and cooldown of less than fifteen minutes. This method has surprisingly been shown to increase both anaerobic and aerobic fitness, FTP and sustainable power.

HR……………………HEART RATE
Heart beats per minute

HRM…………………HEART RATE METER/MONITOR
Self explanatory

HRMax………………HEART RATE MAXIMUM
The maximum number of contractions per minute that your heart sustain which typically occurs at VO2 Max intensity.

IF…………………….INTENSITY FACTOR
The intensity of the workout. That is, the normalized power for a ride with respect to the functional threshold of the rider = NP/FT. (See NP below and FT above)

J………………………JOULES
The energy exerted by the force of one Newton acting to move an object through a distance of one metre or sustaining one watt for one second.

KJ…………………….KILOJOULES
One thousand Joules. In power terms energy in kJ can be determined by:

kJ = AP*hours*3.6

For example an hour of riding at an average power of 200 watts requires 720 kJ of energy.

One dietary Calorie = 4.184 kJ but as the human body is far from 100% efficient (typical values of Gross Metabolic Efficiency range from 19% to 27% ) the actual relationship between kJ burned as shown on a power meter display for all practical purposes is 1:1. IOW, for weight management purposes the energy in kJ displayed on a power meter at the end of a ride is a very good estimate of dietary Calories burned during that ride.

KK……………………KURK KINETIC TRAINER
Stationary Indoor Bike Trainer - Kinetic by Kurt

L1,L2 ETC.………….SPECIFIED LEVEL OF INTENSITY
Power Training Levels, by Andrew Coggan
(See IF above and Z1/Z2 etc. below)

LBS…………………..LOCAL BIKE SHOP
Too complex to explain.

LSD…………………..LONG SLOW(STEADY) DISTANCE
Endurance training philosophy emphasizing workout duration at moderate to lower intensities.

LT…………………….LACTATE THRESHOLD
Is the exercise intensity at which blood lactate starts to accumulate faster than it can be cleared. Several 'Thresholds' are defined including: LT1 or initial rise above baseline blood lactate values, LT2 representing an inflection point where blood lactate begins to accumulate at faster rates, etc. This term is used in multiple ways leading to confusion and debate and one reason why 'functional' measures such as FTP which remove any explicit relationship to underlying processes are gaining favor.

LTHR…………………LACTATE THRESHOLD HEART RATE
Estimated heart rate at your lactate threshold

MAOD………………..MAXIMAL ACCUMULATED OXYGEN DEFICIT
The summed difference between the energy you produce aerobically and the overall energy demand. (Thanks to Alex for that definition lifted from his blog.). MAOD represents a conceptual value that accounts for energy (power) produced via anaerobic processes in terms of how much additional oxygen it would require above and beyond an athlete's limiting VO2 Max.

MAP………………….MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER
The greatest rate at which oxygen can be delivered to working muscles during a ramped exercise test. Actual values of MAP in watts are protocol dependent so consistency in testing method is advised for athletes utilizing MAP testing. Understanding Power

MLSS………………...MAXIMAL/MAXIMUM LACTATE STEADY STATE
This is defined as the highest workload that can be maintained over time where there is a balance between lactate production and lactate clearance. (similar to OBLA)

MMP…………………MEAN MAXIMAL POWER
Maximum average power for a given duration. In other words best average power efforts for durations of interest. Often tracked discretely for instance as best 5 minute power during a certain period of training and racing or continuously on a rider's MMP curve which shows best actual sustained power efforts for a continuous range of durations from 1 second to the duration of the longest ride contained in the set of power data analyzed.

N……………………..NEWTONS
This is defined as the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one metre per second squared

NMP…………………NEUROMUSCULAR POWER
Power generated by short duration primarily anaerobic processes and relying heavily on pure muscular peak strength and or rapid muscle recruitment. Typical but differing examples include peak power during race sprints(emphasis Muscular) or frequent high power bursts well above sustainable levels during criteriums or microinterval training (emphasis Neuro).

NP……………………NORMALIZED POWER
Effective metabolic load of non-steady riding power over a given duration that gives more weight to higher powered efforts. As an estimate of effective 'metabolic' loading NP is most useful for long efforts that are primarily metabolic and should not be applied to efforts much shorter than 20 minutes nor used as a proxy for specific training intensity for short (e.g. 5 minute) efforts. Use AP to guide training intensity for most L4/L5/L6/L7 training but use NP to estimate overall training load from complete workout to estimate recovery needs. In the case of longer variable power efforts such as hour long criterium races NP can be used to estimate effective iso-power intensity of overall effort. Long efforts are typically bounded by both AP and NP such that long efforts (e.g. 45 minutes to an hour) with NP much greater than current FTP estimate is a good indicator that FTP may have risen and a good reason to retest FTP.

OBLA………………..ONSET OF BLOOD LACTATE ACCUMULATION
Similar to MLSS(but tested differently), the physiological point where blood lactate accumulates faster than it can be utilized as a fuel.( see MLSS).

PDC………………….POWER DISTRIBUTION CHART
A histogram representing time spent in user defined power bins for power data collected during a ride or multiple rides. Graphically displays the overall time spent at different power levels.

PDF………………… POWER DURATION PROFILE
One of several methods for estimating a particular athlete's strengths and weaknesses in terms of predominate power generation processes. Typical discrete profiling durations range from 5 seconds to a full hour and characterize a rider's strength and weaknesses from pure Neuromuscular efforts through sustainable metabolic efforts. This information can be displayed in tabular form with test data for discrete durations or in graphical form as a Mean Maximal Power Curve showing best efforts across a continuous range of durations. Power Profiling

PMC.......................PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT CHART
A load management tool for cyclists which facilitates intelligent tracking of short and long term training loads and helps guide training, recovery and pre-event peaking. The PMC consists of a graph charting the relationship between one’s CTL (critical training load), ATL (acute training load) and TSB (training stress balance). What is the Performance Management Chart

PMs………………….POWER METERS
Quarq, Cycleops-Powertap, SRM, iBike, Polar, etc.

PP……………………POWER PROFILE/POWER PROFILING
Power Profiling

PT……………………POWERTAP
A bicycle power measurement system based on electromechanical strain gauges mounted in the bicycle's rear hub.

pVO2MAX………….POWER AT VO2MAX
The power a rider can sustain while exchanging maximal oxygen. P_VO2 Max is measured in watts and not to be confused with VO2 Max which is measured in Liters/min or weight scaled as ml/kg/min. While a fixed amount of power can be generated at maximal O2 uptake and utilization rates a variety of powers can induce a VO2 Max exchange rate depending on the duration over which they're sustained which leads to confusion when discussing VO2 Max vs. P_VO2 Max.
(See VO2Max below)

QA……………………QUADRANT ANALYSIS
A collection of power measurements graphically displayed as a scatterplot of Average Effective Pedal Force (AEPF) vs Circumferential Pedal Velocity (CPV) which illustrates the way in which a rider generated power during a particular training ride or event. QA allows athletes and coaches to investigate the force/speed requirements of particular forms of riding (e.g. mountain biking vs. criteriums vs. time trials vs. hillclimbs vs. cyclocross, etc.) and to tailor their training to meet those demands.

RHR………………….RESTING HEART RATE
Typically defined either as waking heart rate in beats per minute when an athlete first wakes in the morning or daily resting heart rate taken in a sitting or lying position during the day.

RPE………………….RATE OF PERCEIVED EXERTION
Perceived exertion is how hard you feel your body is actually working. During any physical activity one experiences a variety of physical sensations, ie. an increase in heart and breathing rate, an increase in perspiration and of course muscle fatigue. RPE is typically measured in either a 10 or 20 point scale with higher numbers representing higher intensities. RPE scale - Google Images

RR……………………ROLLING RESISTANCE (TYRES/TIRES)
A fantastic link telling you everything you need to know about tyres and rolling resistance Tire Rolling Resistance - Roues Artisanales - Bike tech magasine - handbuilt wheels boutique

RR……………………ROAD RACE
Bicycle races held on moderate to long courses, typically public roads and often involving up and downhill sections, cornering and long straights. Road races are held as both point to point courses starting and ending at different locations or lapped courses with relatively large laps in the 10 to 50 km range per lap. Road races with laps much shorter than 10 km are often referred to as 'circuit races' but still typically involve substantial climbing and open road tactics (e.g. crosswind echelon riding).

SR……………………STAGE RACE
An extended series of individual races with a single overall ranking. Amateur stage races range from short weekend events to week long races while professional Grand Tours last for up to three weeks of continuous or near continuous racing. Classic stage racing is scored on overall accumulated time with the GC (Grand Classification) winner being the rider with the lowest overall accumulated time. Many amateur 'stage races' are scored in omnium format with points awarded to each stage and the overall winner determined by the rider with the highest overall points regardless of actual elapsed riding time.

SRM…………………CRÈME DE LA CRÈME POWER METER (to some)

SST………………….SWEET SPOT TRAINING
So called ‘Sweet Spot Training’ is fairly hard training carried out over an extended period, however it is not as hard as training at FT (functional threshold) and not as easy as simple endurance or tempo training. Therefore we can say SST fits in nicely somewhere between the 2 levels mentioned.

TRIMPS…………….HEART RATE BASED TRAINING IMPULSE
Method of estimating training load and recovery based on Bannister's impulse response model and utilizing heart rate as input. Limited ability to account for anaerobic and neuromuscular efforts.

TSB………………….TRAINING STRESS BALANCE
The difference between a rider's short term training load (i.e. ATL a proxy for fatigue) and long term training load (i.e. CTL a proxy for fitness) and an indicator of freshness or lack thereof. Large negative values of TSB indicate short term loads well in excess of long term average levels and positive values of TSB indicate short term loads below long term average levels.

TT……………………TIME TRIAL
A competitive event where cyclists riding solo are timed over a set distance.

TSS………………….TRAINING STRESS SCORE
A measure of the training workload that takes into account both duration and intensity (IF) with the relationship:

TSS = IF*IF*hours*100

So a ride with an IF (NP/FTP) = .8 that lasts for 2 hours yields a TSS of 128

For most riders earning up to 120 TSS or so for run of the mill training days is typical, much over 150 starts to be a bigger day, 200 or so might be a big weekend day and much over 250 and most folks take an easier day or two before resuming hard training. Really big rides like mountainous double centuries can yield 400-500 TSS but outside of Grand Tours most folks rest after days like that. TSS coming too easily (IOW, high IF for day in and day out moderate riding) is a good sign that FTP has risen and retesting is in order.

Normalized Power (NP), Intensity Factor (IF), and Training Stress Score (TSS)

VI…………………….VARIABILITY INDEX
Ratio of NP to AP for a given ride or ride segment. In general for steady iso-power or linear power ramped riding NP ~ AP but for bursty riding such as criteriums NP > AP for longer durations. VI expresses this difference and serves as a proxy for the 'burstiness' of a ride.

VO2Max…………….MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE/DELIVERY
VO2 max (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake or aerobic capacity) is the maximum capacity of the body to transport and utilize oxygen. VO2 Max represents the limiting amount of oxygen that a rider can utilize at maximal aerobic effort and establishes a limit to aerobic power production. VO2 Max reflects the athlete's ability to pump oxygenated blood (i.e. heart stroke volume and frequency), to transport oxygen (i.e. red blood cell count and hematocrit) and the ability to utilize oxygen in the working muscles (i.e. capillary and mitochondrial density, muscle mass, etc.). VO2 Max is typically measured in absolute terms (liters/min) or weight normalized terms(ml/kg/min).

W………………….....WATTS
Unit of power equal to one joule of energy per second. One Horsepower equals approximately 746 watts.

W/kg………………….WATTS PER KILOGRAM
Weight normalized method of quantifying a rider's ability to sustain power for a given duration. Directly relates to a rider's ability to climb steeper grades and indirectly relates to rider's ability to sustain a given speed on flats into the wind as heavier riders typically have higher aerodynamic drag for a given riding position. FTP and 5 minute power are often described in terms of w/kg as a means of comparing relative fitness of two cyclists as in general two cyclists of differing weight and power would be able to hold pace with each other up a steeper grade if they could sustain the same w/kg for the duration of the climb.

Z1,Z2 ETC…………..SPECIFIED LEVEL OF INTENSITY
Training Zones typically associated with HR based training. (see L1/L2)

If you wish to make any additions to this list, send me a PM and I'll add it in.

Posts

  • wardieboywardieboy Posts: 230
    PRD………………….....PRE RIDE DUMPAGE
    Weight reduction method employed by riders pre race / sportive. Non employment of PRD is encouraged for hill repeat training session allowing riders to 'feel the benefit' once employed on race day.
    Slightly off topic but, whilst waiting behind a horse box today the Horse Farted with a little follow through, missed my mouth thankfully, but my glasses were pebble dashed..
  • bompingtonbompington Posts: 7,304
    Very helpful as I've never really understood a lot of this stuff and it might just help me train better - but when it comes down to it, I'm still not sure if I'll ever do anything other than just GBO
  • raymondo60raymondo60 Posts: 735
    No 'Fartlek' in the list?
    Raymondo

    "Let's just all be really careful out there folks!"
  • AnonymousAnonymous Posts: 28,799
    MTFU, Man The Fook Up.

    HTFU, Harden The Fook Up.

    Common terms, especially in winter. :|
  • liversedgeliversedge Posts: 1,002
    BIKESCORE - Dr Skiba's metric to measure training stress, equivalent to Coggan's TSS
    XPOWER - Dr Skiba's metric to calculate equivalent iso power for a workout, equivalent to Coggan's NP
    --
    Obsessed is just a word elephants use to describe the dedicated. http://markliversedge.blogspot.com
  • Cheers there are some that I've have seen & not fully understood
    Pain hurts much less if its topped off with beating your mates to top of a climb.
  • joe.90joe.90 Posts: 171
    whats HRR% ???
  • andyebandyeb Posts: 407
    joe.90 wrote:
    whats HRR% ???

    Heart Rate Reserve: maximum heart rate (MHR) - resting heart rate (RHR).
  • SetarkosSetarkos Posts: 239
    PPO………………….Peak Aerobic Power Output
    Used in many scientific sutdies.
  • hatonehatone Posts: 228
    As I've mentioned in other threads, you need to include EF (Efficiency Factor) and Decoupling.
  • curiumcurium Posts: 815
    whyamihere wrote:
    KJ…………………….KILOJOULES
    One thousand Joules. In power terms energy in kJ can be determined by:

    kJ = AP*hours*3.6

    For example an hour of riding at an average power of 200 watts requires 720 kJ of energy.

    One dietary Calorie = 4.184 kJ but as the human body is far from 100% efficient (typical values of Gross Metabolic Efficiency range from 19% to 27% ) the actual relationship between kJ burned as shown on a power meter display for all practical purposes is 1:1. IOW, for weight management purposes the energy in kJ displayed on a power meter at the end of a ride is a very good estimate of dietary Calories burned during that ride.
    Okay, I'm new here and it is 4AM but: If you take the maximal efficiency figure you have given of 27% then for a 1 hour ride with an average power of 200 W, this amount of power would require 720 kJ/4.184 C/kJ = 172.1 dietary Calories but since we know the body is inefficient then taking your maximal efficiency figure of 27%, 637.3 dietary Calories may actually have been burned and the difference was lost in inefficient processes.

    This would make the relationship between kJ burned as shown on the power meter and dietary Calories burned closer to 720:637.3 or 1.13:1

    I realise that your statement is qualified by the phrase for all practical purposes so my post is purely for accuracy purposes.

    Please do not be offended, I've been out late, had a few drinks and am now listening to the F1 also, the maths amused me. Good day to you Sir.
  • Rb5_turboRb5_turbo Posts: 206
    Don't forget - IWBMYTTBYT

    From the Suffer Fest Video's and something I know works and is what hard training it is all about:

    I Will Beat My censored Today To Beat Yours Tomorrow

    In other words you only get out what you put in, having raced for 20-years (now retired) I experienced the joy of 5-6 days where I just had it and on those days got my win/top 5 finishes and it was worth each and every cold n wet mile in the winters!

    GL all
  • thanks... I know so little
  • kentphilkentphil Posts: 476
    What is VAM? I've seen this on my Strava stats.
    1998 Kona Cindercone in singlespeed commute spec
    2013 Cannondale Caadx
    2004 Giant TCR
  • kentphil wrote:
    What is VAM? I've seen this on my Strava stats.

    Average speed of elevation gain. It's from the Italian "velocità ascensionale media".
  • kentphilkentphil Posts: 476
    Well an example VAM figure from my stats is 838. How would that equate to average speed?
    1998 Kona Cindercone in singlespeed commute spec
    2013 Cannondale Caadx
    2004 Giant TCR
  • kentphil wrote:
    Well an example VAM figure from my stats is 838. How would that equate to average speed?

    It should really state the units but conventionally they are metres per hour. I'm guessing Strava will use either metres or feet depending on what your settings are.

    If you are going to use VAM for training then you need to make sure you are using good elevation measurements. That usually means letting Strava correct your elevation data.
  • kentphilkentphil Posts: 476
    Thats great, thanks for the reply :-)
    1998 Kona Cindercone in singlespeed commute spec
    2013 Cannondale Caadx
    2004 Giant TCR
  • kentphil wrote:
    Thats great, thanks for the reply :-)

    No worries. You can also use it to work out relative power (P(r)) over a climb if you know the gradient factor (G(f)).

    P(r) = VAM/(G(f)*100)

    G(f) = 2 +(%gradient/10)

    This means that, for the same rider producing the same power, VAM will go up as gradient goes up. It's a good way to compare riders against each other.
  • From the CTS training books, most often the following acronyms are used in other plans from other places also:

    These are based on a % watts of the CTS threshold test, not 20 min. This is 2 sets of 8min taking your maximum 8 minute effort.

    EM: endurance miles, 45-73% power
    FP: fast pedal, very low power high cadence warmup method
    OU: Over unders, expressed as ##min of #U#O where the minutes are total interval minutes and the minutes of each over and under effort are also expressed. Under = 86-90% Over = 95-100%
    SS: Steady state, 86-90%
    PFPI: Peak and fade power intervals, start hard finish wrecked....typically 1 to 3 minutes at a minimum of 101% and up to 150%, sometimes more
    SEPI: Steady effort power interval, same power over the 1 to 3 minute interval. 101-150%, sometimes more
    RBI: Rest between intervals expressed in minutes
    RBS: Rest between sets expressed in minutes

    Typical workouts:
    90-150min EM with 3x12min OU (2U,1O) (8min RBI)

    60-90min EM with 3x[3x2min PFPI (2min RBI)] (6min RBS)
  • simon_esimon_e Posts: 1,676
    KISS: one of the most useful acronyms in training, and ignored by nearly everyone.

    The 6 Ps: Proper Preparation Prevents Pi55 Poor Performance
    Aspire not to have more, but to be more.
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